La vitamina B-12 es producida exclusivamente por un microorganismo y se puede obtener al consumir alimentos de carne y productos lácteos. Es una vitamina soluble en agua, esencial para la fisiología humana. Se usa como un cofactor por algunas enzimas como la metionina sintasa y la 1-metil-malonil-coenzima A mutasa. B-12 es uno de los factores importantes para la síntesis de genes, la síntesis de glóbulos rojos y para mantener la función neurológica normal. Su síndrome de deficiencia clásico es anemia perniciosa, malabsorción y manifestación neurológica.
¿Cuánta vitamina B-12 debes tomar al día?
According to NIH, vitamin B-12 is daily essential for normal metabolism of a human being. The amount of requirement of B-12 is depended on the age factor.
|Life Stage||Per Day Recommended Amount (microgram-mcg)|
|Child Birth to 6 months||0.4 mcg|
|Infants 7-12 months||0.5 mcg|
|Children 1-3 years||0.9 mcg|
|Children 4-8 years||1.2 mcg|
|Children 9-13 years||1.8 mcg|
|Teens 14-18 years||2.4 mcg|
|Pregnant teens and women||2.6 mcg|
|Breastfeeding teens and women||2.8 mcg|
When compared to other vitamin, B-12 doesn’t require in a large amount per day. A small microgram 2.4 mcg is more enough per day which it is easily available for people in the form of fortified foods. Intake of fortified foods is easy for people, particularly who are above 50 years. Aged people have difficulties in the absorption of nutrients, to over this hurdles food industries makes higher bioavailability food products. This means the breakdown of the nutritious compound is not necessary; instead, it reaches the systemic circulation directly after absorption without unchanged. Vitamin B-12 enriched dietary supplements have bioavailability beneficial for old people who have improper dieting. Supplementation of 25-100 mcg per day has been used to maintain vitamin B12 levels in older people.
Vitamin B-12 absorption may interfere in those who use alcohol excessively. Certain medications like high dose antibiotics, stomach-acid controlling medicines like H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors, and anti-diabetes drugs can inhibit the absorption. Smoking tobacco can significantly lower the serum levels of B-12 every day. Thus, anemia is common among nicotine user. In addition, potassium supplements can reduce absorption of vitamin B12, and there is some evidence that vitamin C in supplements can interfere with obtaining the B12 vitamin found in foods.
How Vitamin B-12 Absorbed in Human Body?
The human body absorbs B-12 from food by basic steps. The stomach acids, i.e. HCL in the stomach separates B-12 from the other compound such protein, lipid and other compound. With the help of intrinsic factor, B-12 absorbed well and reaches the circulatory system. If human body lacks this intrinsic factor, the person may suffer from pernicious anemia. Hence, B-12 helps to prevent anemia called megaloblastic anemia which makes the person fatigue. This condition is serious which may cause inhibition of DNA synthesis during RBC production.
What Is The Outcome Of Vitamin B12 Deficiency?
Vitamin B-12 deficiency can cause other nutrient deficiencies such as other B vitamins. Folate, riboflavin, and choline deficiency can cause risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. B-12 or folate deficiency can cause impaired DNA synthesis and cause megaloblastic anemia. Vitamin B-12 about 300 mcg per day is recommended for people anemia.
- Vitamin B-12 as a Therapeutic Agent
- General supplemental dose – up to 25 mcg per day
- Pernicious anemia – cyanocobalamin about 300 mcg/day.
- For high blood levels of homocysteine -500 mcg in combination with 0.54-5 mg folic acid and 16.5 mg pyridoxine.
- For preventing age-related macular degeneration (AMD): vitamin B12 1 mg, folic acid 2.5 mg, and pyridoxine 50 mg daily.
- For atopic dermatitis – B-12 0.07% cream applied twice daily.
- For psoriasis: B-12 0.7 mg/gram applied for 12 weeks twice daily.
- Some exceptional cases, vitamin B-12 is used in the form of injection.
- For pernicious anemia -100 mcg IM/SC once daily for 6 to 7 days.
- For a hereditary condition that causes vitamin B12 malabsorption (Imerslund-Grasbeck disease) – hydroxocobalamin injected into the muscle at a dose of 1 mg daily for 10 days.
- For cyanide poisoning: Hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit) has been given intravenously (by IV) for a total dose of up to 10 grams.
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